Where ever you look in nature you will find patterns. From the seeds in the flower under your nose to the flow of the wind around you and the flock of swallows overhead, some patterns keep occurring again and again.
The essence of mathematics is a series of simple rules that produce complex consequences. And nowhere are these complex consequences more apparent than in the natural world.
In 1948, Warren Weaver identified what he called complex systems. These are systems where individual parts act independently of each other, while still following a set of simple rules.
(Part 3 of 5)